REASONING WITH THE MISGUIDED PEOPLE
The Qur’an is a book of argumentation against infidelity, polytheism, and atheism in the same way as it a book of legislation on Shariah matters. This is why intellectual and rational arguments, permeating all through it, have been advanced chiefly against infidels, polyththeists, Jews, Christians, and athiests or materialists. Reasoning with them reapetedly, every aspect of thier faith has been countered intellectually, challenging them to substantiate thier claims similarly. Criticising some of the contentious beliefs of the jews and the christians, for instance, the Qur’an commands thus:
Those are thier desires. Say unto them, O Muhammad: “produce proof in support of your claim if you are truthful.”
In the same vain, the false ideologies of the polyhiests and the athiests are renounced in these words:
Have they adopted other gods besides Him? Say: “produce your proof in this regard.”
Similarly, after posing questions concerning the different phenomena of nature, the polyhiests and the materialists were quizzed as follows:
Is there another god besides Allah? Say: “Bring forth your proof if you are telling the truth.”
After delivering a fatal blow to thier dogmatic absurdities, at yet another occasion, the polyhiests and materialists were called upon to justify thier claims either through a revealed or logical argument concerning the natural phenomena:
Say: ” Do you see what is that you call upon besides Allah? Show me what they have created of the earth, or have they a share in the heavens? Bring me a book revealed before this or any intellectual evidence, if you are telling the truth!”
46 : 4
More than the polythiests, this verse applies particularly to the contemporary materialists and the athiests as the have neither created anything from the earth nor could establish any hold over the heavenly bodies; thus, the earth and the heavens lie under the universal command of a single and omnipotent Lord, and the ‘intellectual evidence’ demanded from man in the above verse denotes scientific evidence. There is, in fact, not even a shred of such proof in support of athiesm in any of the phenomena of nature.
It is hence said:
The one who calls upon any god besides Allah has no evidence thereupon.
23 : 117
There are people who dispute concerning Allah without knowledge, guidance, or a book of enlightment.
22 : 8
It has to be borne in mind that materialism and athiesm too are, as they attribute divinity to the matter, diffrent manifestations of polythiesm.
Intellectual and logical reasoning is all pervasive in the Qur’an.
This is why it has as a whole been referred to as an ‘argument’ that serves as an antidote against all sorts of misleading ideologies:
O mankind! Surely there has come to you an Argument (burhan)
From your Lord, for we have sent unto you a clear light.
4 : 174
This makes it abundantly clear that the divine book does possess the ultimate argumentative solutions to all the philosophical maladies affecting the mankind in any age, howsoever advanced that may be; thus, the divine argument is destined to excel over all the human arts and sciences in the field of argumentation always:
Say: with Allah is the conclusive argument (hujjah)
This is why numerous arguments concerning the exisstence, unity, and providence of the Almighty or Signs of Allah, have been scatterd all through the natural phenomena. Despite them those who dispute the divine existence and repose thier faith in the theory of spontaneous creation of the universe are lacking miserably in the production of any logical argument that could duly be termed as ‘intellectual evidence’ :
Those who dispute about the signs of Allah without any authority revealed upon them, there is nothing in thier hearts other than the quest of greatness, which they shall never attain. Seek refuge, then in Allah. Indeed it is he who hears and sees all things.
40 : 56
Have we revealed any authority unto them, which speaks for that which they associate with him?
30 : 35
Muslims have been ordained to engage the athiests and the antagonists through such reasoning.
The Almighty commands:
Argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious
16 : 125